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Unit 6 A2 Nature

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What will you learn in this lesson?

  • Exam skill: You will learn how to do the Writing, part 7
  • Grammar:  You will learn prepositions ON, IN and AT, Past Participle of a verb and  how to use the Present Perfect
  • Vocabulary:  Nature vocabulary
  • Pronunciation: Diphthongs

1)Exam skill:  Writing

What’s the Writing about?

The Writing has 4 parts (from 6 to 9) and 4 types of exercises: Word completion (escribir la palabra que está expresada en la definición), Open cloze (completar espacios en blanco con tus propias palabras), Information transfer (completar información), Short message (escribir un mensaje corto).

In this lesson we will study Part 7, which is the second exercise of the Writing.

 Parte  Tarea Número de preguntas  Formato de pregunta
Writing Part 7 Word completion (completar con tus propias palabras) 10 There is one text or two shorter texts with 10 spaces (41-50). You must fill each space with one word.

Source

What are they going to ask you?

They are going to ask you to complete the blanks spaces with your own words. The text is usually a postcard or a letter and the words are usually articles, pronouns, prepositions, quantifiers, and verbs. There can be more than one answer. Te pedirán que completes los espacios en blanco con tus propias palabras. El texto es generalmente una postal o carta y las palabras son artículos, pronombres, preposiciones, cuantificadores y verbos. Puede haber más de una respuesta.

Example:

“Hello Rick,

I’m __IN___ Paris now. I arrived last night. I’m so happy __TO__ be __IN__France again.

I just bought  _A___baguette and _SOME_____ jam, and I’m planning __TO_ have breakfast _ON___ my terrace while looking

__AT__ the people on the street. I _WOULD__ love to see you soon. Please, write to__ME__ Love Sandra.”

  • In, to, on = prepositions
  • A = article
  • Some = quantifier
  • Would = modal verb
  • Me = object pronoun

How will we learn all these words? The best way to learn these words is by listening to simple texts (such as the one above), then reading and repeating the words aloud in sentences. In this lesson we will learn the prepositions IN, ON, and AT. Please, go to section “2) Grammar” for further details.

Exercise 1

Part 7

Complete this postcard

Write ONE word for each space.

For questions 41-50. write the words on your answer sheet.

Example:

 0 on

******

Source (official Cambridge examination)

Example:  

 

Dear Jane,

 

I’m sitting (0).…………the beach at the moment. Soon, I’m (41) …..to have a swim. I arrived here three days (42)………….with my family. We (43)……….be on holiday together here for two weeks. It (44)………..a beautiful place. The beach is very near (45)…….hotel. The sea isn’t cold and (46)………are many interesting places to visit. Yesterday we walked (47) ……a village in the mountains. I took lots  (4)……photographs. It’s (49)..…pity that you didn’t come (50) ….us

 

Love

Peter

Check answers here

Exercise 2

The following sentences include common prepositions, articles, quantifiers and verbs used in e-mails, letters or postcards. Translate them and then repeat them aloud until you say them correctly. Traduce las siguientes frases y repitelas en voz alta hasta que lo hagas correctamente.

  1. ¿ A qué hora llegas hoy?
  2. Te estoy esperando en la estación.
  3. Estamos alojados en un bonito hotel.
  4. Iremos a Londres mañana
  5. El bosque es precioso.
  6. Tengo un poco de frío.
  7. Él hizo algunas fotos
  8. Me gustaría enseñarte esta playa
  9. En pocas palabras
  10. Hay un centro comercial cerca de casa
  11. Llegamos el viernes pasado
  12. Ayer fuimos al centro
  13. Hay mucha gente en la calle
  14. Hace mucho calor
  15. Me gustaría que me visitaras.

Check answers here

 

Exercise 3

Part 7

Complete this e-mail.

Write ONE word for each space.

For questions 41-50. write the words on your answer sheet.

Example:

 0 to

******

Hello Catherine,

I know you are very anxious (0)….. know what’s my new life like. Well, let (41)…. tell you that I’m (42).…….happy. Yesterday was my first day.(43)…….. class and I met many new people.

We have a group foreign students and we go(44) ….. together. I have also made friends (45) …… lots of British students. In fact, the day after I arrived I was(46) ……. to a party where I met my roommate, Sarah who is (47).……..London.

My flat is not (48) …….. big but I’m happy because it’s very (49) ……the school. You can visit me whenever you want to because we have (50)….. extra bed for guests.

Please, let me know how things are going at your school.

Love

Isabella

Check answers here

 

2) Grammar

2.1. What is a preposition?

A preposition is a word, or phrase, that is usually placed before a noun, or pronoun, to show the relationship to another word in a sentence. Una preposición es una palabra o frase que generalmente se coloca  delante de un sustantivo, o pronombre, para mostrar la relación que esta palabra tiene con otra palabra en una  oración.

For example: The cat is ON (preposition)–>(relationship) the table (noun)

 

2.2. Prepositions of Place: ON, IN and AT

ON, IN, and AT are the most common prepositions.

 Preposition ON  Example
She was ON the bus/train/plane  Ella estaba en el autobús/tren/avión
I saw it ON TV Lo vi en la televisión
I found it ON the internet Lo encontré en internet
It’s ON the left/right Está a la izquierda/derecha
 Don’t step ON the carpet No pises la alfombra
 The picture is ON the wall La foto/pintura está en la pared
 It’s ON page 5 Está en la página 5
 They were ON the beach Ellos estuvieron en la playa
 The boatmen ON the Seine Los barqueros en el Sena

 

 Preposition IN  Example
They are the best IN the world Son los mejores del mundo
 The man is IN the room El hombre está en la habitación
IN this photograph En esta fotografía
He was IN the taxi Él estaba en el taxi
Let’s meet IN the street Encontremos en la calle
I’ll be IN my office Estaré en la oficina
I went IN the shop Entré en la tienda
I like the description IN this book Me gusta la descripción de este libro
Let’s go IN there Entremos allí

 

 Preposition At  Example
We are AT the restaurant  Estamos en el restaurante
They were AT the hotel Ellos estuvieron en el hotel
We’ll meet AT the airport Nos encontraremos en el aeropuerto
They sat AT the table Nos sentamos a la mesa.
 He’s AT the door Él está en la puerta (en el umbral)
 They were AT the concert Estuvieron en el concierto
The children are AT the school Los niños están en el colegio.
He’ll be AT the event Él estará en el evento
Let’s meet AT the University Encontrémonos en la universidad

 

Exercise 4

Complete with the right preposition

2.3. What is the past participle of a verb?

The past participle  is a verb form that expresses that an action has been completed. El participio pasado es una forma verbal que expresa que una acción se ha completado. It’s used to form the perfect tenses in the active voice and in all tenses of the passive voice. Se utiliza para formar los tiempos perfectos en la voz activa y todos los tiempos de la voz pasiva.

It appears on the list of irregular verbs on the third column. Aparece en la lista de verbos irregulares en la tercera columna. 

Let’s see an example:

  • Give (dar) Gave (dio) Given (dado)<— Past Participle of the verb

In the case of regular verbs, it is expressed by adding -ED to the verb root just like in the Past Tense.

For example:

  • Play (jugar) Played (jugué) Played (jugado)<— Past Participle of the verb

In Spanish the past participle of verbs corresponds to the verbs ending in -ado  or ido, and some irregular forms. For example: trabajado, comido or visto.

  • Yo he comIDO– I have EATEN.

Exercise 5

Write the Past Participle of the following verbs:

  1. Give
  2. Take
  3. Send
  4. Work
  5. Go
  6. Write
  7. Speak
  8. Do
  9. Make
  10. Be

Check answers here

2.4. Why do we need to know the past participles?

We need to know the past participles because we are going to learn how to form the Present Perfect. This tense is made with the auxiliary verb “have” and the past participle of the main verb.

2.5. When do we use the Present Perfect?

a. When we want to speak about actions that have happened in the past but have present consequences or a connection to the present.

Example: I have cleaned the garden.  He limpiado el jardín. Note:I can see the difference because everything is clean and fresh.(present consequence). Puedo ver la diferencia porque todo está limpio y fresco (consecuencia presente).

b. When we want to speak about things that we did or didn’t do in our life, experiences we have or haven’t had.

Example: I have never been to China. Nunca he estado en China. Note: I haven’t done this in all my life. No he hecho esto en toda mi vida.

2.6. How do we form the Present Perfect?

There are 4 basic forms that you must learn:

  1. Affirmative sentence
  2. Negative sentence
  3. Questions
  4. Answers

1.Affirmative sentence

Subject + have/has+ main verb ending in past participle + object. Note: Has is for the third person: He, she, it.

Examples:

  • I have seen them. Los he visto.
  • She has seen them. Ella los ha visto.

2. Negative sentence

Subject + have/has+ not + main verb ending in past participle + object.

Examples:

  • I haven’t seen them. No los he visto.
  • He hasn’t seen them. Él no los ha visto.

3. Questions

Have/has+ subject + main verb ending in past participle + object?

Examples:

  • Have you seen them? ¿Los has visto?
  • Has he seen them? ¿Los ha visto él?

Negative question:

Have/has + not + subject + main verb ending in past participle + object?

Examples:

  • Haven’t you seen them? ¿No los has visto?
  • Hasn’t she seen them? ¿No lo ha visto ella?

4. Answers

Yes, + subject + have/has- No, +subject+not+ have/has.

Examples:

  • Yes, I have- No, I haven’t.
  • Yes, he has- No, he hasn’t

To Remember:

  • In the Present Perfect, the third person (he, she, it) is formed with HAS, not with have . Try to remember this when you speak. HAS she called? No Have she called? INCORRECT.
  • The contraction of “has” is ‘s. She’s done it. Ella lo ha hecho. Don’t confuse this ‘s with the contraction of the verb “to be”.

Exercise 6

Translate the following sentences. Check the answers. Once you have corrected the mistakes, repeat them aloud.

  1. ¿Has visto esa película?
  2. No he ido al cine
  3. Ella ha estado ocupada todo el día
  4. Hemos ido al campo
  5. ¿No has comprado pan?
  6. No hemos hecho nada
  7. Ellos han empezado a comer
  8. ¿Has estado tú allí?
  9. ¿Habéis vendido la casa?
  10. Ella no ha venido a la fiesta

Check the answers here

*****************

3)Vocabulary: Nature

Source

Exercise 7

Translate the following sentences. Check the answers. Once you have corrected the mistakes, repeat them aloud.

  1. Ellos construyeron un dique
  2. El puente se vino abajo
  3.  El faro se ve desde mi casa
  4.  Hicimos un picnic en la orilla del río
  5. Vamos a las dunas
  6. Nunca he estado en el desierto
  7.  Esa pradera es muy bonita
  8. Vamos a esa colina
  9. El campo está verde
  10.  La tierra (de cultivo) está lista

Check answers here.

Exercise 8

Translate the following sentences. Check the answers. Once you have corrected the mistakes, repeat them aloud.

  1. Hay piedrecitas (guijarros) en el río
  2. Fue una ola muy grande
  3.  El musgo es verde
  4. Los arbustos están secos
  5. El jardín está lleno de barro
  6. El camino es muy estrecho
  7. Tengo arena en los zapatos
  8.  Vimos una cueva muy antigua
  9. Era una mina de oro
  10. El estanque estaba seco

Check answers here

4) Pronunciation: Diphthongs 

Diphthongs /dɪfθɒŋs/difzongs/ are double vowel sounds in words like lateride, or sound.  Los diptongos son sonidos vocálicos dobles que aparecen en palabras como late, ride o sound.  When we say “double vowel sound” we mean that one vowel (sometimes two) is really pronounced as two vowels.  For example, we pronounce the word late (tarde) = /leit/ an “e” and an “i”  together.  Cuando decimos “sonido vocálico doble” nos referimos a que una sola vocal ( a veces dos) se pronuncia como dos vocales. Por ejemplo, pronunciamos la palabra “late” = /leit/  se pronuncia no como una “a” sino como una “e” y una “i”.

 

In this video you can hear how diphthongs sound 

(British accent). Pay attention to the different sounds and repeat them aloud.

  • ear /ier/ – oído, oreja
  • deer /dier/- venado
  • say /sei/ – decir
  • afraid /afreid/- asustado
  • mine /main/- mio
  • likely /laikli/ – probable
  • boy /boi/- niño
  • coin /coin/- moneda
  • pair /pear/- pareja
  • where /wuear/- donde
  • now /nau/- ahora
  • sound /saund/ -sonido
  • soap /soup/- jabón
  • yellow /ielou/- amarillo.

Go to Unit 7

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